Aquaculture is the farming of freshwater and saltwater organisms.
The growth rate of worldwide aquaculture has been sustained and rapid, averaging about 8% per annum for over thirty years, while the take from wild fisheries has been essentially flat since the last decade.
Environmental impact concerns include waste handling, side-effects of antibiotics, competition between farmed and wild animals, and using other fish to feed more marketable carnivorous fish. However, researches and commercial feed improvements for the past twenty years have downsized many of these.
Friend of the Sea sustainable aquaculture criteria require:
- no impact on critical habitat (e.g.: mangroves, wetlands, etc)
- compliance with waste water parameters
- reduction of escapes and bycatches to a negligible level
- no use of harmful antifoulants or growth hormones
- compliance with Social Accountability
- gradual reduction of carbon footprint